Frank Jefkins dalam "Public Relations", menyatakan khalayak (public) adalah kelompok atau orang-orang yang berkomunikasi dengan suatu organisasi, baik secara internal maupun eksternal.
Beberapa alasan pokok mengapa suatu organisasi atau perusahaan harus mengenali atau menetapkan unsur masyarakat luas yang menjadi khalayaknya, yakni:
- Untuk mengidentifikasikan segmen khalayak atau kelompok yang paling tepat untuk dijadikan sasaran suatu program kehumasan.
- Untuk menciptakan skala prioritas, sehubungan dengan adanya keterbatasan anggaran dan sumber-sumber daya lainnya.
- Untuk memilih media dan teknik PR yang sekiranya paling sesuai.
- Untuk mempersiapkan pesan-pesan sedemikian rupa agar cepat dan mudah diterima.
Akibat dari tidak ditetapkannya khalayak atas suatu program PR:
- Segenap usaha dan dana akan terpecah-belah akibat terlalu luasnya khalayak yang dituju.
- Pesan yang dikirimkan tidak ditangkap atau dimengerti sebagaimana mestinya, karena pesan itu tidak sesuai dengan karakteristik khalayak yang menerimanya.
- Total kegiatan tidak akan sesuai dengan jadwal yang telah ditetapkan sehingga penggunaan jam kerja, materi serta peralatan menjadi tidak ekonomis.
- Tujuan yang hendak—walaupun telah ditargetkan—tidak akan tercapai.
- Pihak manajemen atau perusahaan klien merasa tidak puas dengan hasil yang ada.
Employee relations atau hubungan dengan karyawan meliputi semua bentuk komunikasi antara pimpinan organisasi dengan karyawannya. Khalayak karyawan termasuk pegawai, pimpinan, pekerja kontrak dan serikat pekerja.
Tujuan employee relations, antara lain:
- Meningkatkan pengetahuan karyawan tentang kebijakan, kegiatan dan perkembangan/pertumbuhan organisasi
- Meningkatkan sikap positif karyawan terhadap organisasi
- Menerima feedback dari organisasi
Beberapa kegiatan employee relations, yaitu:
- Mengikutsertakan karyawan pada pelatihan atau seminar.
- Menyelenggarakan program khusus tentang teknologi baru.
- Open house bagi karyawan dan keluarganya.
- Olahraga bersama.
Media yang dapat digunakan pada employee relations, antara lain:
- Majalah dinding
- Internal television
- Audiovisual (documentary films, slide presentations)
- Booklets, pamphlets, brochures dll.
Media relations atau hubungan dengan media terdiri dari publisitas atau liputan berita tentang kegiatan organisasi. Media relations adalah kegiatan utama PR.
Wragg dalam buku "The Public Relations Handbook"
The purpose of press relations is not to issue press releases, or handle enquiries from journalist, or even to generate a massive pile of press cuttings. The true purpose of press relations is to enhance the reputation of an organization and its products, and to influence and inform the target audience.
Tujuan "hubungan dengan pers (media)" bukanlah untuk menyebarkan isu melalu rilis, atau menjawab pertanyaan dari jurnalis, bukan juga menghasilkan tumpukan klipingan koran. Tujuan hubungan pers hakikatnya adalah untuk meningkatkan reputasi organisasi dan produk atau layanannya, dan untuk memberikan informasi pada khalayak target dan mempengaruhi mereka.
Untuk mengoptimalkan penggunaan media massa, harus memperhatikan beberapa hal berikut:
- Jenis dan besaran khalayak yang dijangkau oleh setiap media/saluran
- Jenis materi yang digunakan oleh media/saluran - spot news, materi feature, wawancara, foto.
- Nama dan jabatan editor yang bersangkutan, direktur, reporter, atau staf penulis yang menangani rubrik atau pemberitaan organisasi yang ditangani
- Tengat waktu (deadlines) media yang bersangkutan - bulanan, mingguan, harian, edisi pagi, sore, per edisi, per jam.
Ada 2 kategori media; (1) media massa dan (2) media khusus
Media Massa: a. Lokal (cetak: surat kabar, majalah, TV, radio), b. Nasional (cetak, jaringan siaran, wire services)
Specialized Media: a. Lokal (perdagangan, industri, asosiasi, majalah internal organisasi, program siaran khusus), b. Nasional (bisnis, perdagangan, industri, asosiasi, majalah internal organisasi, program siaran khusus)
Tujuan media relations, antara lain:
- Meningkatkan pengetahuan komunitas media terhadap berita organisasi
- Meningkatkan kredibilitas organisasi di kalangan orang-orang media
- Meningkatkan sikap dan pemberitaan yang positif tentang organisasi di media
Beberapa kegiatan media relations, yaitu:
- News release atau press release—cetak dan video
- Photo caption
- Press conference
- Media interview
- Media tour
- Press briefing
Cutlip dalam "The Public Relations Handbook", An institution’s relationships with its neighbours in its community are crucial because these neighbours supply the organisation’s workforce, provide an enviroment that attracts or fails to attract talented personnel, set taxes, provide essential services and can, if angered, impose restraints on the institution or industry.
Hubungan suatu lembaga dengan lingkungan di sekitarnya sangat penting karena merekalah yang menyediakan tenaga kerja organisasi, daya dukung lingkungan yang menarik maupun yang patut dihindarkan, seperti para tenaga kerja yang terampil, penetapan pajak, layanan penting, dan jika mereka marah, akan memberlakukan pembatasan pada lembaga tersebut maupun kegiatan industrinya.
Maintaining good relations with the community usually entails management and employees becoming involved in and contributing to local organizations and activities. In addition, the organization may communicate with the community in other ways, such as distributing house publications or meeting with community leaders.
Menjaga hubungan yang baik dengan lingkungan/masyarakat biasanya memerlukan/melibatkan manajemen dan karyawan untuk berkontribusi bagi organisasi lokal dan kegiatannya. Selain itu, organisasi dapat berkomunikasi dengan masyarakat dengan cara lain, misalnya mendistribusikan publikasi yang diproduksinya atau pertemuan dengan para pemuka masyarakat.
The public relations practitioner should assess problems the organization may have had with community groups and make a searching analysis of community relations opportunities (Hendrix, 2001).
Para Praktisi PR seharusnya mengkasi masalah-masalah yang mungkin dihadapi organisasi dengan kelompok masyarakat dan menganalisa kemungkinan-kemungkinan menjalin hubungan dengan mereka.
Target khalayak community relations atau hubungan dengan komunitas, antara lain:
- Keluarga karyawan
- Komunitas media dan komentator
- Pimpinan komunitas (seperti guru, pemuka agama, dan tokoh adat).
Tujuan community relations, antara lain:
- Meningkatkan pengetahuan komunitas tentang kegiatan operasional organisasi, termasuk produknya, pelayanannya, karyawannya, dan dukungan terhadap proyek komunitas
- Mendapatkan dukungan dari pimpinan komunitas
- Mendorong adanya feedback dari pimpinan komunitas.
Beberapa kegiatan community relations, yaitu:
- Open house
- Menjadi sponsor kegiatan khusus komunitas
- Menjadi volunteer kegiatan komunitas
- Mengadakan pertemuan dengan pimpinan komunitas.
Three principles of effective communication deserve special attention in community relations program. First, the targeting of opinion leaders or community leaders for communication is crucial to the success of such a program. Second, group influence plays a substantial role in effective community relations. Third, audience participation is highly significant. The success of a program should be directly linked to its attainment of the objectives stated at the program’s outset.
Tiga prinsip komunikasi yang efektif yang pantas mendapatkan perhatian khusus dalam program community relations: (1) Untuk keberhasilan program, adalah penting menjadikan para pemimpin opini atau pemuka masyarakat sebagai target utama, (2) pengaruh kelompok memainkan peran substansial dalam community relations yang efektif. (3) Partisipasi khalayak sangat penting. Keberhasilan sebuah program harus terkait langsung dengan pencapaian atas tujuan yang dinyatakan program sejak awal.
PUBLIC AFFAIRS DAN GOVERNMENT RELATIONS
The principal concern will be with how the enactment of legislation is influenced. This process includes the creation of political coalitions, direct and indirect; lobbying, political action and political education activities, communication on political issues, and political support activities.
Data necessary for understanding members of the legislative branches of government include officials’ voting records on issues of concern to the client; the size, location, and general demographics of their voting constituencies; their committee assignments; and their general interests and areas of expertise.
Yang menjadi perhatian utama adalah bagaimana rancangan/pembuatan undang-undang dapat dipengaruhi. Proses ini meliputi menggalang koalisi politik, langsung dan tidak langsung; lobi, aksi politik dan kegiatan pendidikan politik, komunikasi mengenai isu-isu politik, dan kegiatan dukungan politik.
Data yang diperlukan untuk memahami anggota legislatif meliputi data pemilihan pejabat yang memperhatikan isu-isu klien, jumlah, lokasi, dan demografi umum konstituen mereka; dimana mereka ditugaskan (komisi), dan kepentingan umum dan keahlian mereka.
A sampling of impact objectives for public affairs includes such statements as:
- To increase knowledge of the client’s activities and field of operation among legislators - meningkatkan pengetahuan tentang kegiatan klien dan bidang operasi kepada para legislator
- To create or enhance favorable attitudes toward the client among officials - meningkatkan perlakukan baik terhadap klien dari para pejabat (pemerintah)
- To influence favorable vote on a bill - memberikan dukungan (suara) pada perundang-undangan yang menguntungkan (operasional klien).
Output objectives represent the effort of the practitioner without reference to potential audience impact. Such objectives might use such statements as:
- To make oral presentations to 30 lawmakers.
- To distribute printed information to 45 lawmakers.
Hasil yang ingin dicapai adalah upaya praktisi - tanpa mengacu pada dampaknya pada khalayak. Tujuannya dapat dinyatakan sebagai berikut:
- Melakukan presentasi lisan kepada 30 anggota legislatif
- Menyebarkan informasi tertulis (cetak) pada 45 anggota legislatif/parlemen.
The actions unique to public affairs programming:
- Fact finding
- Coalition building
- Direct lobbying
- Grassroots activities (indirect lobbying)
- Political action committees
- Political education activates
- Communication on political issues
- Political support activities.
The practitioner’s communications with public officials must largely be direct and interpersonal. The lobbyist or practitioner of public affairs uses uncontrolled media at the grassroots level. However, all forms of controlled media can be used both in direct contact with lawmakers and in grassroots communication with constituents. In general, then, the uniqueness of public affairs communication lies in the interaction that occurs directly with lawmakers and officials. To be effective, it should emphasize interpersonal, preferably one-on-one, communication.
The communication flow in public affairs is best described as triangular. The flow is targeted ultimately at lawmakers, in the legislative branch, or at regulation-makers, in the executive branch.
There are two differences in the measurement of impact objectives for public affairs.
First, message exposure, message comprehension, and message retention are not measured in the same way. The primary target audiences for public affairs are legislators and officials. The media, however, are used essentially to reach the constituents of these public officials. And though the officials themselves are usually media sensitive, message exposure in public affairs usually refers to constituent exposure.
The second differences in the measurement of impact objectives is that survey or other quantitative methods of research can not be used with the primary target audiences because legislators and officials will not usually the time to respond to such PR surveys. Thus, non quantitative measurements of message exposure and message retention are used in assessing the results of informational objectives.
A Public Affairs Communication Model
INVESTOR DAN FINANCIAL RELATIONS
Theaker: Financial PR is the management of communication between a listed company and its financial audiences. A listed company is a company whose shares are traded on the Stock Exchange and report on their activities and financial performance to their investors. They are assisted by advisors: a corporate financier who helps to develop the business by exploring ways to fund growth; a nominated broker who manages the buying and selling of the shares; an accountant who audits the financial accounts; a lawyer to ensure compliance with the laws governing commercial companies; and a financial PR advisor who helps build awareness and understanding of the business in the City. Financial PR is concerned with raising awareness and building understanding amongst primarily the City’s opinion formers who influence investors and potential investors.
Hendrix: Corporations that sell shares to the public must conduct a specialized form of public relations with the investment, or financial, community. Investor and other financial relations cannot be managed in the same aggressive manner that characterizes other forms of PR. The U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) prohibits the promotion of corporate stock under certain circumstances, and it has detailed regulations regarding the issuance of annual and quarterly reports and the timely disclosure of all information that will affect the value of publicly traded corporate shares.
The PR practitioner needs to focus on the company’s past and present financial status, its past and present investor relations practices, and its strengths, weaknesses, and opportunities specifically related to the financial community.
The second area of research involves assessing the need for a program or financial PR. Most corporations engage in ongoing investor relations program that may involve routine communication with the financial media, the annual report to shareowners, the annual meeting, as well as miscellaneous meetings with and tours for shareowners. When problem develop with particular publics, special programs may be devised reactively. Thus, the need for the program should be clearly justified and explained in this phase of research .
Research for investor relations involves identifications of key audiences or groups that make up the financial community.
- Institutional investors (existing shareholders, potential shareholders or past shareholders)
- Security analysts and investment counselors
- The financial media
- The trade press
- Internet news services
- Security and Exchange Commission
- Private client brokers
- Private individuals.
Impact objectives for investor relations include informing investor publics and affecting their attitudes and behaviors. Some examples are:
- To increase the investor public’s knowledge or significant corporate developments
- To enhance favorable attitudes towards the corporation
- To create more interest in the corporation among potential investors
- To raise more capital through the investor relations program
- To receive greater responses from shareowners and other targeted investor public.
In investor relations, output objectives constitute the distribution and execution of program materials and forms of communication. For example:
- To distribute corporate news releases to 12 major outlets among the financial media
- To make 18 presentations to security analysts during the months of March and April
The theme and messages for an investor relations program will be entirely situational. Such programs usually provide assurances of credibility and attempt to enhance relations between the company and the financial community.
Action and special events unique to investor relations include:
- An annual shareowners’ meeting
- An open house for shareowners or analysts
- Meetings with members of the financial community
- Special seminars or other group meetings with analysts
- Special visits to corporate headquarters or plant tours for analysts and share-owners
- Presentations at meetings or conventions of analysts, in and outside of New York City
- Promotional events designed to enhance the company’s image in the financial community.
Uncontrolled media most frequently used in investor relations include:
- News releases or feature stories targeted to the financial and mass media
- CEO interviews with the financial and mass media
- Media relations with key members of the financial press to stimulate positive news coverage of the company and its activities.
Controlled media most often found in investor relations programs are:
- Printed materials for share-owners, including the annual reports, quarterly and other financial reports, newsletters, magazines, special letters, dividend stuffers, announcements
- Company promotional films or videos
- CEO and other corporate officers’ speeches to key audiences in the financial community
- Company financial fact books, biographies and photographs of corporate officers, special fact sheets, and news releases
- Shareowner opinion surveys
- Financial advertising
- The company Web site.
The most relevant communication principles for investor and financial relations are source credibility and audience participations. Evaluation of investor relations programs should be goal oriented, with each objective reexamined and measures in turn.
The main measure of financial PR is share price. The share price of a company should reflect its full potential. A company that has financially performed well should have a share price equal to, or better than, its peers’ and reflect the performance of the sector as a whole.
A development almost as significant to business as the Industrial Revolution has been the “Age of the Consumer”. PR in the field of consumer relations is often regarded as marketing communications. Marketing, as we have seen, is the identification of the needs of consumers, and how to satisfy those needs profitably. Organizations who class consumers as one of their main publics or stakeholders groups are likely to be relating to them as buyers of their products.
In the case of consumer relations, client research will be centered on the organization’s reputation in its dealings with consumers. How credible is the organization with activist consumer groups? Has it been a frequent target of their attacks? What are it past and present consumer relations practices? Does it have a viable program in place? What are its major strengths and weaknesses in this area? What opportunities exist to enhance the organization’s reputation and credibility in consumer affairs? The answer to these questions will provide a reasonably complete background for further development of a consumer relations program.
Explanation and justification of need for a consumer relations program is part of the research process. The need grows out of the client research phase in determining past and present dealings with consumers. If problems already exist, a reactive program will be necessary. If there a re no problems with consumers at the moment, the practitioner should consider preparing a proactive program. The organization’s “wellness” in its relations with consumers should be made a matter of priority concern to management.
These audiences usually include:
- Company employees
- Activist consumer groups
- Consumer publications
- Community media—mass and specialized
- Community leaders and organizations.
Stone quotes research from the 1970s which identified six main zones of influence within families when making decisions about buying various products.
- Man’s influence
- Woman’s influence
- Children’s influence
- Man and woman
- Man and children
- Woman and children
It is useful at this to revisit the types of PR campaign that are available, so that PR activity in the consumer are can be viewed as part of a broader whole. According to Patrick Jason of Jackson, Jackson and Wagner in New Hampshire, there are six types:
- Public awareness
- Information with awareness
- Public education
- Reinforcing attitudes and behaviour
- Changing attitudes
- Modifying behavior
Some likely examples of impact objectives are:
- To increase consumer’s knowledge about the company’s products, services, and policies - meningkatkan pengetahuan konsumen mengenai produk, layanan dan kebijaksanaan perusahaan
- To promote more favorable consumer opinion toward the company - mempromosikan opini konsumen yang mendukung perusahaan (customer testimony)
- To stimulate greater participation in the company’s consumer relations programs - merangsang partisipasi melalui program perusahaan di bidang consumer relations
- To encourage more positive feedback from consumer groups to the company’s program - mendorong umpan balik positig dari kelompok konsumen pada program perusahaan.
Output objectives for consumer relations involve the practitioner’s measurable communication efforts with targeted audiences:
- To distribute more consumer publications during the period June 1- August 31
- To develop three employee consumer seminars for this fiscal year
- To meet with five important consumer groups during the next six months
- To prepare and distribute recipes for using the product to 12 major food editors in the state during the campaign.
Action and special events unique to consumer relations include:
- Advising management and all employees about consumer issues
- Developing an efficient consumer response system
- Handling specific consumer complaints through a customer relations office
- Creating a company ombudsman, whose role is the investigation and resolution of complaints
- Maintaining liaison with external activist consumer groups
- Monitoring federal and state regulatory agencies and consumer legislation that might affect the company
- Developing emergency plans for a product recall
- Establishing a consumer education program, including meetings, information racks with printed materials on product uses, training tapes on products uses, celebrity endorsements and tours, and paid advertising on consumer topics
- Holding employee consumerism conferences, seminars, and/or field training.
Community, and sometimes state or national, media should be targeted for appropriate news releases, photo opportunities or photographs, interviews, and other forms of uncontrolled materials reporting the company’s actions or events in consumer affairs.
Controlled media for a consumer relations program usually include printed materials on the effective use of the company’s products or on health, safety, or other consumer-oriented topics. Audiovisual materials such as training tapes and films are often used as vehicles for consumer education. One of the most important mechanisms for effective consumer communication is the company Web site.
The principles of special interest for effective communication in consumer relations are source credibility, two-way communication, and audience participations. Research for consumer relations concentrates on an organization’s reputation with its consumers and on the reason for conducting a program of this kind. In some instances, the consumer publics are segmented, with different messages and media designed for communication with each group.
INTERNATIONAL PUBLIC RELATIONS
The research process for international public relations includes understanding the client, the opportunity or problem involved, and the audiences to be reached. A thorough investigation of the client will begin with background information on their nationality or home country. The next need will be for knowledge of the client's reputation and status in the country of its target audiences, along with past and present PR practices in that country. Finally, the client's PR strengths and weaknesses in the host country should be assessed.
In this phase of research, the practitioner should determine why and to what extent the client needs an international PR program. The program may be either reactive, in response to a problem experienced in the host country, or it may be proactive in the interest of establishing a presence and creating good will in the host country.
Whether domestic or foreign, the client—and more importantly, the practitioner representing the client—must understand various aspects of the target audience, including the language and its centrality to the culture of the host country, its cultural values, patterns of thought, customs, communication styles—both verbal and nonverbal, and the target audience's cultural norms. In addition, the PR practitioner must become acquainted with the host country's various systems: legal, educational, political; and economic. Moreover, knowledge of the host country's social structure, heritage, and, particularly, its business will practices wigreatly benefit communicating with target audiences. Finally, audience information levels regarding the client and its products or services, audience attitudes and behaviors relevant to the client, and specific audience demographics and media use levels should be gathered as part of the research for an international public relations program.
As in audience research for community relations, international practitioners will need to investigate and understand the media, leaders, and major organizations of the host country. Collectively or singularly, they will often provide the key to success in communicating with a target international audience.
The audiences for international PR will include:
- Host Country Media (mass and specialized media)
- Host Country Leaders (public officials, educators, social leaders, cultural leaders, religious leaders, political leaders, professionals and executives)
- Host Country Organizations (business service social, cultural religious political and special interests).
International PR programs may employ both impact and output objectives. They should be both specific and quantitative. Impact objectives for international public relations involve informing target audiences or modifying their attitudes or behaviors. Some possible examples are:
- To increase the international audience's knowledge of the client, its operations, products, or services
- To enhance the client's image with the target international audience
- To encourage more audience participation in the client's international events.
Output objectives for international public relations consist of the prac¬titioner's measurable efforts on behalf of the client. They may include such operations as:
- Preparing and distributing more international publications
- Creating new international projects
- Scheduling meetings with international leaders.
Programming for international PR includes planning a theme and messages, actions or special events, uncontrolled and controlled media, and effective use of communication principles.
The nature of the opportunity or problem and the research findings in the situation will govern the messages and theme, if any, to be communicated in the international PR program.
Client actions and special events for international programs often include:
- Sponsorship of cultural exchange programs between the host and the client's countries
- Establishment of institutes in the host country to teach the lan¬guage and culture of the client's country
- Meetings with leaders of the host country
- Seminars or training programs held in schools, businesses, or institutions in the host country
- Awards programs honoring leaders and other celebrities of the host country
- Festivals in the host country celebrating the foods, dress, dance, art, or other aspects.of the 'culture of the client's country. These may coincide with such holidays as creation of the client's country, its in¬dependence, victory in key battles or wars, birthdays of its found¬ing fathers or heroes, and so on.
- Participation of the client organization, its management, and its personnel in the special holidays and events of the host country.
A major key to successful international PR is the client involvement and interaction that actions and special events in the host country can provide. In international PR, the practitioner should service the media of the host country with such appropriate uncontrolled media as news releases, interviews with officers of the client organization, and photo opportunities, all centered around the actions or special events comprising the program itself.
Controlled media may also use the client's actions and special events as a major focus, with related print materials mailed to a select list of leaders and a speakers bureau created to provide important organiza¬tions in the host country with oral presentations from officers of the client organization. Both uncontrolled and controlled media should be centered on the client's involvement with, participation in, and contri¬butions to the interests of the host contributions to the interests of the host country.
The client's web-site may play a significant role in the program. It provide a wealth of information available in the language of the ost country and reflect the client's interest inthe host country. Both uncontrolled and controlled media should be centered on the client's involvement with, participation in, and contributions to the interests of the host country.
The most important communication principles involved in the programming of international PR are source credibility, non-verbal and verbal cues, two-way communication, the use of opinion leaders, group influence, and audience participation.
Nothing is of greater importance in international PR than the perceived credibility of the client organization in the host country. Target audiences must believe that the practitioner's client has their best interests at heart and is not simply operating in the host country for purposes of exploitation of cheap labor, low production costs, lax environmental standards, and similar factors. In such situations, credibility enhancement requires tangible and visible contributions to the host country on the part of the client organization, its management, and its personnel. These organizational representatives simply cannot set themselves apart as an elitist enclave or separate community in the host country and expect to maintain their credibility. They must become active and constructive participants in the life and culture of the host country. This will be best reflected in constructive actions and special events as part of the organization's public relations programming.
Effective use of verbal and nonverbal cues in the programming will include an understanding not only of the official language of the host country but of that country's special applications or dialectical usage of the language. Although French is the official language of France, Canada's province of Quebec, and Haiti, its usage varies as widely among these countries as does Spanish usage from Madrid to Santo Domingo. The astute practitioner will understand such verbal nuances, as well as the many nonverbal cultural differences in the uses of time, spatial relationships, and visual and vocal cues. Failure to take these verbal and nonverbal distinctions into account can spell doom for international PR programming.
Two-way, or interpersonal communication is especially important in an international ontext. This presupposes the use of native speakers and writers in the PR programming. The deadly PR sin of overreliance on the mass media or other forms of one-way communication (main print) can take a serious toll on the effectiveness of international public relations efforts.
The inclusion of opinion leaders and groups is another indispensable element in international public relations programming. While important in most American contexts, attention to and communication with important leaders and groups can become magnified in the international context. This requires a thorough understanding of the com¬plexities of the social and political context in the host country. It may require the employment of authoritative consultants in the host coun¬try. Though the cost of getting this right may be high, the cost of getting it wrong will, in the long term, be unbearable if not disastrous.
Finally, there can be no substitute in any PR program for audience participation. If interactive programming is the norm for American public relations, it should be an absolute requisite of international public relations. This principle again underlines the significance of participative actions and special events as the core of effective programs.
Effective use of these communication principles cannot be overemphasized. They serve to heighten the practitioner's sensitivity to and awareness of the interactive and participative nature of PR, especially in the international context.
The evaluation of an international PR program should be driven by the monitoring and final assessment of its stated objectives: Both impact and output objectives can be evaluated using the same measurement tools as in other forms of public relations. A significant difference may lie in the necessity to use research firms with credible reputations in the host country. It could be a serious mistake to bring in firms and employees from the client's country to conduct surveys, focus groups, and the like in the host country.***